Thursday, 15 June 2017

Garnier: Letter from the Bishop of London to Becket (Quae vestro)

Letter from the Bishop of London  to Becket when he was in exile, Summer 1166

This is the letter known as Quae vestro

Extract from 
http://txm.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/bfm/pdf/becket.pdf
Stanzas 637-664
Lines 3181-3320


637
Li evesques de Lundres une epistle enveia
Saint Thomas ultre mer ; mes sun nun i cela,
E el nun des evesques del païs le dita
E des autres persones ; mais nul n’en i numa.
3185 Amur, subjectiun e saluz li manda :

638
« Pere, quant vus partistes del regne sudement,
Mult par en fu trublez li regnes erramment.
Mais par vostre humbleté e par vostre escïent
Esperames, par grace de Deu omnipotent,
3190 Qu’en la pais revendreit u fu premierement.

639
Primes nus en poümes conforter e aitier,
Que par le regne oïmes nuveler e nuntier
Qu’ultre mer erïez, ne volïez plaidier
Vers le rei, ne si haut encontre li drecier,
3195 Nul mal ne nul engin el regne purchacier ;

640
Ainz volïez poverte de vostre gré porter,
En oreisun adès e en estudie ester,
Les mesfaiz e la perte del trespas amender
En veilles e en plur e en mult jeüner,
3200 Que l’amur al haut rei peüssiez conquester.

641
Teus ovres erent bones a la pais refurmer.
Quidames que par ço peuissiez recovrer
La grace al rei, e s’ire vus volsist parduner,
Les torz que li eüstes faiz, ensi ublïer :
3205 Senz sun congié partistes, e passastes la mer.

642
Nis cil qui vus voleient amer e maintenir,
En poeient al rei parler e avenir ;
E quant le requereient de vus dous amaisir,
De concorde e de pais entre vus establir,
3210 A la feiz les soleit benignement oïr.

643
Or avum el oï, dunt mult sumes irié :
Car brief avez al rei senz saluz enveié,
Ne l’avez de sa grace requis ne depreié ;
N’entenduns en teus lettres un sul puint d’amistié,
3215 Quant a escumengier l’avez ja manacié.

644
E s’ensi le parfaites cum vus l’avez pramis,
Tut ço que est trublé e meslé el païs
N’iert ja mais en amur ne en concorde mis ;
Ainz en crestra haenges qui durera tuz dis,
3220 Ne qui n’iert apaisiez pur hume qui seit vifs.

645
Parfitement se deit sages hum purpenser,
Quant il comence rien, bien puisse parfiner.
E en ço devez mult vostre grant sens mustrer,
Saveir se vus purrez en tel guise mener
3225 Ço qu’avez comencié, la u volez aler.

646
Pur cest grant hardement, que l’avez manacié,
De la bone esperance sumes tuit esluignié ;
Car ne veum coment seiez mais amaisié.
Quant vus alez sur li od vostre brant sachié,
3230 Que nuls prit mais pur vus n’i a liu aeisié.

647
Pur ço vus conseillum en fei e en amur :
Ne faites tort sur autre, n’i ait travail greignur.
Comandez vostre cause a Deu le creatur,
E laissiez voz manaces, suffrez vostre seignur.
3235 Pur vostre humilité avra de vus tendrur.

648
Ensi poëz aveir s’amur e sa chierté.
N’i avez par manaces nule rien conquesté ;
Plus purrïez conquerre par vostre humilité,
E de gré vus vendreit mielz suffrir povreté
3240 Que tenir granz honurs de lui par engresté.

649
Tuit sevent qu’il vus ad durement honuré,
Del poi u vus trova, hautement alevé ;
Bailla vus del realme tute la poesté,
Que cil qui eüssiez de bon oil reguardé
3245 Se tenist a cel’ure pur mult bon eüré.

650
De poi vus crut en halt e mult vus honura.
Tut encontre sa mere, qui li desconseilla,
Encontre tut le regne, cui il mult anuia,
Encontre saint’iglise, qui grief en suspira,
3250 L’onur que vus avez, vus conquist e duna.

651
Quida nel volsissiez de rien contralïer,
Mais conseillier le regne e par tut avancier.
Quant le volez abatre, quil devez conseillier,
Malement li volez ses bienfaiz mercïer.
3255 Mal en puet tuz li munz reconter e nuncier.

652
Ne perdez vostre pris pur ço, ne vostre honur ;
Par amur conquerez le rei vostre seignur.
Se conseil ne creez que vus donent pluisur,
Al conseil l’apostolie clinez, e a s’amur,
3260 A l’iglise de Rume, qui ne flechist d’un dur.

653
Hum vus deit bien mustrer que ne faciez tel fait
Dunt saint’iglise chiece en plus dolerus plait,
Qui maint jor a esté en plur e en deshait,
E que cil nel conperent qui rien n’i unt forfait
3265 E portent la colee de ço qu’altre a mesfait.

654
Que dirrez se li reis, qui li regnes apent,
E qui a desuz li e les clers e la gent,
Se part de l’apostolie par vostre anguissement
E ne voldra mais estre a sun comandement ?
3270 Car encontre le rei pur vostre amur se prent.

655
Veez cum hum l’en prie, quels duns um l’en presente !
Mais pur si granz pramesses n’i met un puint s’entente ;
Ferms est cume la piere encontre la turmente.
Mais cil qui tuz li munz ne remue ne tente,
3275 Jo criem, Sire, ne turt. Mais ja Deus nel consente !

656
Mais se ç’avient par vus, vus le purrez suffrir,
Mais tuz li vis de lermes vus en devra covrir.
E pur ço vus devez de conseil bien guarnir,
Qu’il ne deie a la pape a damage venir,
3280 A l’iglise de Rume e a vus mult nuisir.

657
Mais vostre sage clerc nel volent graanter.
Tut ço que poëz faire vus rovent espruver,
E al rei e as suens la poesté mustrer,
A celui qui mesfait qui mult fait a duter
3285 E a criendre a celui ki ne volt amender.

658
Ne dium que li reis n’ait mesfait e mespris,
Mais il est par tut prez de l’amender tuz dis.
Pais deit guarder el regne, pur ço l’i ad Deus mis ;
E pur ço que mielz puisse pes guarder el païs,
3290 Volt aveir leis e us qui sunt el regne asis.

659
S’entre vus e le rei avez esté medlé,
L’apostolies l’en a sovent araisuné,
Li prelat del reaume l’en unt amonesté :
S’iglise u persone a, ço dit, de rien grevé,
3295 Par l’iglise estera a dreit de sun regné.

660
De dreit faire, e de plus, est prez, se nul l’en prie ;
E s’il mesfait vers Deu, liez est s’um l’en chastie.
E quant a saint’iglise e a Deu s’umilie,
N’i ad lei ne decré, ne rien, qui l’entredie,
3300 N’espee eclesial quil depiest ne ocie.

661
Metez enz vostre espee, jugement ensiwez.
Tuit vus en requerum : ne vus desmesurez,
Ne pur ignel conseil n’ocïez ne tuez ;
As oeilles qui sunt desuz vus, purveez,
3305 Qu’en bone seürté e en peis les metez.

662
Une chose avez fait dunt mult sumes dolent :
Que l’evesque avez mis en escumengement,
Celui de Salesbire, sun deien ensement.
Mais ainz deit l’um la cause saveir certainement
3310 E oïr e traitier, qu’um face jugement.

663
E qu’ensi ne faciez e al regne e al rei,
Iglises e parosses qui sunt en nostre otrei,
Que nes escumengiez a tort e a beslei,
Al damage la pape e al vostre, ço crei,
3315 Apeluns pur remedie e refui de l’esfrei.

664
E a l’Ascensiun metum de l’apel jur.
Mais tuit vus requerum : pernez conseil meillur,
Ne vus metez en eire ne en si grant labur,
Ne faites a voz fiz si despendre le lur.
3320 Vostre salu volum en Deu nostre Seignur. »


Translation

637
The bishop of London sent a letter to St.Thomas beyond the sea, but did not put his name on it. Rather he dictated it in the name of the bishops of the country and other ecclesiastical dignitaries, but without naming any of them. He made known to him his love for him and his submission, and greeted him.

638
<<[Venerable] Father, when you left the kingdom suddenly, the kingdom was deeply troubled by it. But through your humility and by your wisdom we hope, through the grace of all-powerful God, that the peace that was will return soon.

639
>>At first we were able to take comfort and were gladdened when we heard the rumours spreading throughout the kingdom and learned that you had crossed over the sea, and that you did not wish to plead against the king, nor to confront him with hostile intent to put matters right, nor had you any evil intent nor by any scheme wished to take advantage against [the king and his] kingdom. 3195


References

Quae vestro (ep. ccv in Materials, ed J. C. Robertson, V pp 408-)
https://archive.org/stream/materialsforhist05robe#page/408/mode/1up

Richard Hurrell Froude; James Bowling Mozley (1839). Remains of the Late Reverend Richard Hurrell Froude: v. 2. J. G. & F. Rivington. pp. 171–.
Constitutions of Clarendon: Letter of his Suffragan Bishops to the Thomas Becket: Quae Vestro (1166)

Roger (de Hoveden.); Roger of Hoveden; William Stubbs (1868). Chronica magistri Rogeri de Houedene. Kraus Reprint. pp. 262
Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Emmanuel Walberg (1936). Les Classiques français du Moyen Age. Librarie Honoré Champion.
https://archive.org/stream/laviedesainttho00guer#page/108/mode/1up
Notes: https://archive.org/stream/laviedesainttho00guer#page/270/mode/1up

Immanuel Bekker (1838). La vie St. Thomas le martir. pp. 81–.

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); tr Janet Shirley (1975). Garnier's Becket: translated from the 12th-century Vie saint Thomas le martyr de Cantorbire of Garnier of Pont-Sainte-Maxence. Phillimore. ISBN 978-0-85033-200-1.


Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence) (1990): tr. Gouttebroze & Queffelec . La vie de saint Thomas Becket. H. Champion. pp. 88–. ISBN 978-2-85203-111-1.

See also Multiplicem nobis

Multiplicem nobis (ep. ccxxv in Materials, ed J. C. Robertson, V pp 521-44)
https://archive.org/stream/materialsforhist05robe#page/521/mode/1up
Constitutions of Clarendon: Gilbert Foliot's letter to Becket (Summer 1166): Multiplicem nobis

David Knowles (1951). The Episcopal Colleagues of Archbishop Thomas Becket: Being the Ford Lectures Delivered in the University of Oxford in Hilary Term 1949. Appendix VII: Multiplicem nobis: Cambridge University Press. pp. 171–. ISBN 978-0-521-05493-5.


Michael Staunton (2001). The Lives of Thomas Becket. 60: Gilbert Foliot's case against Thomas: Manchester University Press. pp. 223–. ISBN 978-0-7190-5455-6.

Sunday, 4 June 2017

Garnier: King Henry's Penance before the Tomb of St Thomas Becket

Extract from 
http://txm.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/bfm/pdf/becket.pdf
Stanzas 1183-1218
Lines 

1183
Nis li reis d’Engleterre, ki fu ses enemis,
Pur ki sis anz e plus fu eissuz del païs,
E pur ki maltalent si humme l’unt ocis,
Od grant humilité l’ad al quart an requis,
5915 E li cria merci de quanqu’il out mespris. 


1184
Al quart an qu’ot suffert li martyrs passiun,
Al setme meis de l’an, -juinet l’apele l’un, - 
E al duzime jur, un vendresdi par nun,
Vint li reis al martir a satisfactiun.
5920 Mais pur grant busuig vint a sucurs al barun.

1185
Juste Cantorbire unt leprus un hospital,
U mult i ad malades, degez e plains de mal. 
Base de français médiéval 
Pres une liwe i ad del mustier principal,
La u li cors sainz gist del mire espirital
5925 Qui maint dolent ad mis en joie e en estal
.
1186
Dunc descendi li reis iluec, a Herbaldun,
E entra el mustier e ad fait s’oreisun ;
De trestuz ses mesfaiz ad requis Deu pardun.
Pur amur saint Thomas ad otrïé en dun
5930 Vint marchies de rente a la povre mesun.

1187
E a un hospital, bien dous liwes de la,
A herberchier les povres, li reis ne s’ublia :
Kar de rente a cel liu par an cent sols dona.
Beneï seit de Deu ki al liu le turna,
5935 Altrement qu’il nen est e qui l’amendera.

1188
Tresqu’a Saint Dunestan tut a pié s’en ala,
A la premiere iglise qu’en la vile trova.
Od les prelaz k’i furent el mustier s’en entra,
E par confessiun sun espirit munda,
5940 E suffri discipline e sa char chastia.

1189
Dunc ad fait le priur tresqu’al covent aler ;
Preiad lui que fesist les seignurs asembler,
E quanque il voldreient entr’aus tuz eswarder
Qu’il deüst al martir e faire e amender,
5945 Volentiers e de gré le voldreit graanter.

1190
Dunc se fist erramment tut nuz piez deschalcier,
E nuz piez e en langes, pur sa char castïer,
En une chape a pluie, u soleit chevalchier,
Tut contremunt la vile ala par le perrier.
5950 A Deu se volt par grief penitence amaisier.

1191
Encontre les reis solt um faire glas soner
E la processiun encontre els asembler
E dedenz le mustier a grant honur mener.
Mais tute cel’honur fist dunc li reis ester :
5955 N’i volt pas cumme reis mais cum mendifs entrer
.
1192
Humblement vint a l’uis ; iloec s’agenoilla,
En plur e en preieres granment i demura.
En l’iglise est entrez ; al Martirie en ala,
Dist i confiteor, e le marbre baisa.
5960 Dunc ala a la tumbe, al martyr s’acorda. 

1193
Quant il out lungement esté en oreisun,
E jut grant piece en lermes e en afflictiun,
En quer contrit del tut, en grant devotiun,
Li evesques de Lundres i ad fait sun sermun ;
5965 Pur le rei e pur lui dist sa confessiun.

1194
« Seignur, fait li evesques, or entendez a mei.
Veez ci en present nostre seignur le rei :
Venuz est al martyr en amur e en fei ;
Sa confessiun pure me fait dire pur sei,
5970 Si cum jo l’ai oïe, e pluisur, en secrei.

1195
Devant Deu le conuist e devant le martyr
Qu’il ne fist pas ocire saint Thomas ne murdrir,
N’il nel comanda pas a tuer n’a ferir ;
Mais il dist tel parole, bien le vus volt gehir,
5975 Qui fu cause e matere de l’ocire e murdrir.

1196
E pur ço que pur lui fu, - ço cunuist, - ocis,
Est venuz al martyr, culpables e clamis,
E s’en rent e conuist e forfait e chaitis.
Al seint crie merci de ço k’il ad mespris,
5980 E de l’adrescement s’est tut en voz los mis.

1197
A ceste saint’iglise rent tut sun tenement,
Ambure a l’arcevesque e a tut le covent,
Franchise, dignité, einsi plenierement
Cum ele ad en nul liu en cristïene gent,
5985 E tut si cum ele out ja ancïenement.

1198
Or vus requiert li reis trestuz communement :
Priez le veir martir, ki ci gist en present,
Que del tut li pardoinst e ire e mautalent ;
Car mespris ad vers lui e culpable se rent,
5990 E venuz est ici pur faire amendement.

1199
Que par vostre preiere e par vostre oreisun,
Par pure penitence e satisfactiun
Puisse l’amur conquerre del pretius barun,
De terre dis livrees dune a ceste mesun
5995 Od les trente livrees dunt vus fist ainz le dun. »

1200
Quant li evesques out sun sermun partraitié,
Li reis Henris li ad quanqu’ot dit otrïé. 
De tut mautalent l’ad li covenz relaissié,
Si li unt graanté ço qu’il lur out preié ;
6000 E li priurs l’en ad pur le covent baissié.

1201
Li reis Henris idunc de tant s’umiliad
Que par s’umilité en plur tuz les turnad :
Veant els, il meïsme sa chape desfublad,
En une des fenestres de la tumbe musçad
6005 Le chief e les espaules ; le dos abandunad.

1202
Mais il ne voleit pas la cote verte oster ;
Ne sai s’il out la haire, que il ne volt mustrer.
Dunc se fist as prelaz primes discipliner ;
Plus de quatre vint moines i fist après aler.
6010 Tendrement veïssiez les plusurs d’els plurer.

1203
Li evesque de Lundres tint el puing le balei ;
Reguarda le cors saint e reguarda le rei.
« Saint Thomas, veir martyr, fist idunc, oez mei :
Se de Deu ies si bien cum l’um dit, e jel crei,
6015 De cest pecheur aiez merci que jo ci vei. »

1204
En fei e en amur oï li sainz cestui,
Qui li out fait al siecle sovent mult grant ennui,
E or l’aveit requis pur sei e pur altrui.
Li martyrs vit les quers e del rei e de lui :
6020 En veire repentance furent salvé andui.

1205
A saint Thomas dona li reis en acordance
Bien quarante livrees de rente a remanance,
E a sa fiertre faire or pesé en balance.
Mes mielz ama asez la veire repentance
6025 Que il ne fist Angou u Engleterre u France.

1206
Li eveske de Lundres aveit le rei feru
Cinc cops pur les cinc sens, u Deu ot offendu.
Icil de Rovecestre le raveit puis batu
E cil de Boxeleie, li abes, ki i fu ;
6030 E de chescon des moines a treis cops receü.

1207
Quant li reis Henris fu batuz e castïez
E par amendement a Deu concilïez,
Sun chief ad trait a sei, e se dresça en piez.
Lez un pilier s’asist a la terre entaiez ;
6035 N’i fu suz lui tapiz ne oreillier culchiez. 

1208
Salmes e oreisuns tute la nuit chanta.
As hummes saint Thomas sun coruz parduna ;
La surur saint Thomas merci quist e cria,
E en adrescement un molin li dona.
6040 Bien valt dis mars par an la rente qu’ele en a.

1209
Tute la nuit entiere en oreisuns veilla,
Ne pur necessité del cors ne se leva
Tresque après matines. Idunches se dresça
E par tuz les alters aorer s’en ala.
6045 Al martyr vint jeün, n’i but ne n’i manga.

1210
En la puinte del jur fist la messe chanter.
E trestuz enboez de tai se fist heser,
Ainc pur nului ne volt faire ses piez laver.
De plus repentant prince ne vus puet nuls cunter ;
6050 Mais al martyr requerre dut il trop demurer.

1211
Par quaranteines sunt li pechié espeldri.
Après quarante meis li reis suratendi :
Se quarante semaines oüst suraconpli
E puis après i fussent creü quarante di,
6055 Pris’en fust la vengance ; tut pur veir le vus di
.
1212
E quant la quaranteine des meis fu trespassee,
E des semaines fu la quaranteine entree,
Lués fu de tutes parz Engleterre troblee.
Se saint Thomas n’eüst la face Deu muee,
6060 En l’une de ces treis fust l’ire Deu trovee.

1213
Or ad Deus parduné al rei sun maltalent.
Car en cel jur maïme qu’il fist l’amendement,
Parti li quens de Flandres de la mer od sa gent,
Qui voleit Engleterre del tut metre a neent ;
6065 Pris fu li reis d’Escoce l’endemain ensement.

1214
Normendie ert bien prof destruite e confundue,
E l’ost de France i ert tresqu’a Ruem venue ;
Tute Engleterre esteit a sun duel esmeüe.
Le ciel orent guerpi, pris s’erent a la nue ;
6070 Mais li pius Deus aveit la povre gent veüe.

1215
Ne voleient aveir sur els rei si puisant,
Ainz voleient aveir entre els un alaitant 
K’il peüssent detraire ça e la cum un gant.
En cele lealté furent par tut nuisant,
6075 E lur grant felunie covrirent par l’enfant
.
1216
Ne poeit pas li enfes le regne governer.
Plus lealment del pere nel poeit nuls guarder.
Pere e fiz sunt tut un, qui dreit volt esguarder :
Cil qui voldrent le fiz del pere desevrer,
6080 E le fiz e le pere voldrent deseriter.

1217
Mais or conseil le rei qu’il lest a saint’iglise,
Si cum il ad pramis, e dreiture e franchise ;
Ses francs hummes ait chiers, temprez seit en justise ;
Ne seit d’umme pur beste del cors vengance prise ;
6085 A chascun lest sun dreit, e seit senz coveitise.

1218
Mais jo sai bien le quer lu rei e sa maniere.
Il ad a governer une gent pauteniere :
S’ele aveit liu e aise, l’aguilun ad deriere ;
Qui tute lur larreit a bandun la riviere,
6090 De porcs e de berbiz voidereit la bruiere.

1219
Se Normanz nel cremeient, Engleis e Angevin
E Bretun e Waleis, Escot e Peitevin,
Mult avreient tost fait tut le regne frarin.
Mais quel semblant qu’il face, il prendra bone fin. 

Translation
1183
Even the King of England, who was his enemy, who drove him into exile from the land for six years and more, and who by anger caused men to kill him, came, with great humility, in the fourth year after his death to beg for mercy for the many wrongdoings he had committed against him. 5915

1184
In the fourth year of the passion of our martyr [1174], in the seventh month of that year, it is called July, on the twelfth day, on a Friday by name, the king came to the tomb of our martyr to make amends. It was, in fact, out of great necessity that he came to seek the help of our hero. 5920

1185
Nearby Canterbury there is a hospital for lepers where there are many sick, outcast and full of those suffering. It is almost one league from the cathedral where the holy body of the spiritual physician lies, who has restored happiness and health to so many of the sick. 5925

1186
The king got down from his horse there, at Harbledown; and entered the church and said a prayer for all the sins he had committed, asking God for His forgiveness. Out of love for St. Thomas he granted as a gift an [annual] income worth twenty silver marks to this house for the poor. 5930

1187
And to another hospital, not two leagues from there, a refuge for the poor, the king did not forget this place either, for he endowed it with an allowance worth a hundred shillings a year.


1188
Completely on foot he reached St. Dunstan's, the first church that was found in the town. Together with the prelates who were there he [then] entered the church and through confession cleansed his soul, and had his body chastised. 5940

1189
Then he made the prior go up to the monastery [cathedral priory of the Holy Trinity or Christ Church, Canterbury], begging him to have the lords [a religious council of its monks] assemble there, so as whatsoever they all decided he must do make amends towards the martyr, that of his own free will he would give his assent to it. 5945

1190
Then he immediately took off his footwear completely to bare his feet. And barefoot, clad only in a woollen garment and wearing a cloak for the rain, which he usually wore when out riding on horseback, he went up through the whole town along the stone pathway. He wished to reconcile himself to God by undertaking a grievous penance. 5950



1193
After having been at length in prayer and lying prostate [on the ground] in tears and in great sorrow and in seeking the contrition of all [present] showing great devotion, the bishop of London there made his sermon saying as far as he was concerned the king's confession had been heard. 5965

1194
<<My lords,>> said the bishop, <<listen to me. Look who here is present, our lord the king: he has come to the martyr in love and faith: his confession was sincere such as if I myself, (as well as others), just as if I had heard him tell it to me many times before in private. 5970

1195
>>Before God he made known to him and before the martyr, that he did not cause the martyr, St Thomas, to be killed, nor murdered, that he had commanded no one to kill him, nor to attack him; but he does admit that he did say such words which were a motive and cause of his killing and murder. 5975

1196
>> And it was for this reason he [Becket] was, as you know, killed, that he [the king] has come to the martyr, guilty and remorseful, and to confess himself to him [Becket]; and he [the king] realises his [the king's] misdeeds and is a sinner. To the saint he cries for mercy for those wrongs which he [the king] has done to him [Becket], and for atonement, and this is what he [the king] puts to all of you. 5980

1197
>> To this holy church he [the king] gives back all of it tenements [including] both those belonging to the archbishop's see and those belonging to the monastery [priory]; he [the king] gives back all of her freedoms and dignities such as she would enjoy anywhere amongst Christian peoples, and everything she had before anciently. 5985

1198
>>The king now requires absolutely all of you to pray to the the true martyr who now lies here [before you] to forgive both all of his anger and bad will; and for the wrongs he [the king] has done towards him [Becket] he pleads guilty and has come here to atone for these. 5990

1199
>>that by your invocations and through your prayers, through sincere penitence and by making reparation, that he might be able to win over the love of our precious hero, he [hereby] gives to this house [of God] land worth ten pounds sterling silver per annum in addition to the thirty pounds that he has already given you.>> 5995

1200
When the bishop [of London] had finished delivering his sermon king Henry confirmed all that he [the bishop] had said. The monks of the monastery forgave him from [released him from the sin of] all the anger he had towards him [St Thomas Becket], so they granted him what he had asked them for, and the prior gave him the kiss [of peace] on behalf of the whole monastery. 6000

1201
King Henry then, so great was his submissiveness that through his humility it brought them all to tears. He took off his afore-mentioned [rain] cloak, and hid his head and shoulders in one of the openings of [in the side of Becket's] tomb; his back he left exposed. 6005

1202
But he did not wish to remove his green tunic; I do not know whether he had a hair shirt on [underneath], as he did not want to  show it. Then he submitted himself first to discipline by the prelates; and then there were more than eighty monks to come to do it afterwards. You could see that the majority  of them were shedding tears of tenderness. 6010

1203
The bishop of London held in his fist the [birch-]rod [bundle of birch twigs]; looking at the saint and then at the king [he said] <<St. Thomas, true martyr, listen to me now: if by God you are so well esteemed, as it is said, and I believe it, take mercy on this sinner who I am looking at here.>> 6015

1204
In faith and in love, the saint heard this, from he who had often given him so much great sorrow in this world. The martyr looked into their hearts, both his and the king's; seeing true repentance in them both were saved. 6020

1205
To St.Thomas the king in reconciliation gave an income from rent of land equivalent to forty pounds for [the care of] his remains, and for the [re-]building of his shrine a measure of gold was weighed in the scales. Never was so much love shown in true repentance, not even in Anjou, nor England nor in France. 6025

1206
The bishop of London thrashed the king five times, once for each of the five senses that he had offended God with.
[Hearing, sight, taste, smell, and touch.]
Then in turn he [the bishop of] Rochester was next to beat him. And then the abbot of Boxley who was [also] there. And from each of the monks he received three strokes [with the birch-rod]. 6030

1207
When king Henry had been beaten and castigated, and by his amends reconciled himself to God, he drew out his head [out of Becket's tomb], and stood up on his feet. He sat down on the bare and dirty ground beside a column; neither did he have beneath him a carpet, nor cushions to lie on. 6035

1208
He chanted psalms and prayers during the whole night. He begged the pardon for his anger from the St. Thomas's men [entourage]. From the sister of St. Thomas he sought mercy and in redemption gave her a mill worth 10 marks a year in rent which she gets from it. 6040

1209
He stayed awake the whole night in prayer without getting up for any bodily need, right up till after Matins [dawn/cock-crow] and then went by way of all of the altars worshipping at each. To the Martyr's tomb he came [back still] fasting having neither drunk nor eaten anything. 6045

1210
At daybreak he had mass chanted. and completely covered in mud he had his leggings [hose] put on, before anyone might have wanted to wash his feet. Of a more repentant prince one could not tell the story of but he had had to delay too long seeking [the pardon of] the martyr. 6050

1211
After forty days and nights sins are expunged. [But] after forty months the king had waited too long: if he had [only] waited forty weeks and then for a further forty days to pass then vengeance would not have been taken; all this is the pure truth I tell you. 6055

1212
And when the period of forty months [since the death of Becket] had passed and the period of forty weeks had begun, England also found itself in trouble on all sides. If St. Thomas had not changed what God was doing, in one of these three periods it would have met with God's wrath. 6060

1213
God now spared the king his wrath, as on this same day on which he had made his atonement the Count of Flanders did not put to sea with his people whose intention was to subject England. Likewise the king of Scotland was captured on the very next day.  6065

1214
Normandy was almost completely destroyed and overthrown, and the French host had reached nearly as far as Rouen. All England was sorely in grief. They had abandoned the heavens to cling onto clouds. But the  merciful God had looked after the poor people 6070

1215
They did not want to have so powerful a king over them. They preferred to have amongst them a suckling infant whom they could lead astray this way and that like a glove. By this  kind of loyalty they were all causing harm, and their great felony was being covered up by the infant. 6075

1216
The infant could not govern the kingdom which no one could protect more faithfully than the father. Father and son all are one who wish to uphold the law. Those who want to separate the son from the father both the son and the father should want to dispossess [as  outlaws].6080

1217
Henceforth I advise the king that he should leave to Holy Church all he has promised, both its legal rights and its liberties; its free persons he should cherish, tempering himself in justice; nor should he take vengeance upon men for the killing of wild game; to each he should allow their rights, and he should do this without covetousness. 6085

1218
But I know the heart of the king well and his character. He has to govern a people who are mercenary whores. If they are given the opportunity of both time and place, this is like a sharp needle in their backside; who if he were completely to abandon his grip on the meadow lands by the river he would [soon find them] filled by pigs and sheep from the moors. 6090

1219
If the Normans, English and Angevins, both Bretons and Welsh, scots and Poitevins were not afraid of him they would have very quickly made the whole kingdom wretched. But whetever it is likely he will do, it will turn out good in the end.

References

Constitutions of Clarendon: Henry II's Penance at the Tomb of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury, 12th July 1174

Harbledown - Wikipedia

The old leper church of St Nicholas, Harbledown and Rough Common - 1085632| Historic England
https://goo.gl/HJYgGQ

Birch-rod used to thrash [birch] someone [and sweep floors]






The Five Senses in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art
Carl Nordenfalk
Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes
Vol. 48 (1985), pp. 1-22
Published by: The Warburg Institute
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/751209

Boxley Abbey

Barrè Charles Roberts; Grosvenor Charles Bedford (1814). Letters and miscellaneous papers by Barrè Charles Roberts; with a memoir of his life [by G.C. Bedford]. pp. 188–.


Confietor
http://www.preces-latinae.org/thesaurus/Basics/Confiteor.html

King's Mill Canterbury


kingsmill - Canterbury History

Edward Hasted, 'Canterbury: Mills on the river', in The History and Topographical Survey of the County of Kent: Volume 11 (Canterbury, 1800), pp. 143-147. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-kent/vol11/pp143-147

Wikipedia - Tunic - Medieval_tunic

Wikipedia - Matins

King Henry's Itinerary 1174 https://goo.gl/S97X39




Monday, 29 May 2017

Garnier: Master Fermin's Vision and Epilogue

Extract from
http://txm.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/bfm/pdf/becket.pdf
Stanzas 1219-1236
Lines 6091-6180

1219
...
6095 Un’avisun oï mustrer maistre Fermin :

1220
Ainz que sainz Thomas fust ocis el saint mustier,
Grant processiun vit aler lez le clochier :
El senestre reng vit saint Thomas chevalchier,
E un clerc luinz de lui, mais nel solt entercier ;
6100 Le rei de l’altre part desur un grant destrier.

1221
Une corune d’or out a la croiz pendant ;
Cil la porta mult halt ki ala tut devant.
Une voiz unt oïe desus en l’air criant :
Qui a la croiz metreit gemmes e or luisant,
6105 Corune d’or avreit el ciel a parmenant.

1222
La voiz fu bien oïe. Sainz Thomas l’escuta
E s’il puet a nul sens, a la cruiz ateindra ;
Car corune del ciel durement desira.
Sur un grant cheval fu ; e cele part ala :
6110 Mult gemmes e mult or esmeré i posa.

1223
Lungement après ço s’est li reis purpensez :
S’il n’avient a la croiz, mult en ert vergundez.
Sur un grant cheval fu ; a la cruiz est alez :
Mult i mist pures gemmes e or ki fu provez ;
6115 Mais n’i mist mie tant cum li bons ordenez.

1224
Idunches s’en ala li clers repurpensant
Coment i avendra ; mais la vint chevalchant :
Mult i aveit mis gemmes e mult or reluisant,
E mult bien i avint ; mais n’i mist mie tant
6120 Cum li uns des dous fist ki offrirent avant.

1225
La processiun vait, li munz est en decurs.
Li plus i vunt a pié, car poi beent aillurs.
Sainz Thomas li martyrs nus face veir sucurs !
Mais jo vus di pur veir : uncor vendra li jurs
6125 Li reis larra pur Deu les seculers honurs.

1226
Car nuls ne seit qu’il ad en sun quer enbracié ;
Mais la muableté le truble de sun sié,
E si enfant ki sunt de sens poi esforcié.
E li dit Merlin l’unt durement esmaié ;
6130 Li fol espositur l’en unt pi aveié.

1227
Car li fol conseil furent vers Bretaigne forgié
Par ki fut enfrenez e bien pres mis a pié.
Or guart coment l’eglesse i aveit l’or culchié.
Plus de treis feiz e treis ad ja nidifïé ;
6135 Del tierz ni d’Engleterre ad oü sun quer lié.

1228
De celui e des altres, se Deu plaist, s’esjoira.
Mais ja de cele eglesse li reis mar dutera :
Ja mais en altre liu ne nidifiera,
Car sa plume ad perdue ; ja ne recovera.
6140 Mais encor guard la terre, kar grant mestier en a !

1229
Mais bien sache li reis, e jo pur veir li mant,
Si fiz erent produme e forcible e vaillant ;
S’il se tienent ensemble, plus en erent puissant ;
Mult les criendrunt Engleis, Peitevin e Normant,
6145 E tels en plorera qui or s’en vait riant.

1230
Tant cum s’entre – amerunt e li fiz e li pere
E il dui amerunt e la broiz e la mere,
Tant cum tendrunt ensemble li enfant cume frere
E li reis ert sur els e reis e emperere :
6150 Ki metlera la salse, mult la bevra amere.

1231
Deu pri e le martir, que j’ai servi maint jur,
Qu’il mette pes el regne, e tienge en bon’amur
E le pere e le fiz e la broiz e l’oisur,
E lur doinst joie e vie senz change de seignur,
6155 E lur mette en curage que me facent honur.

1232
Guernes li Clers del Punt fine ici sun sermun
Del martir saint Thomas e de sa passiun.
E mainte feiz le list a la tumbe al barun.
Ci n’a mis un sul mot se la verité nun.
6160 De ses mesfaiz li face li pius Deus veir pardun !

1233
Ainc mais si bons romanz ne fu faiz ne trovez.
A Cantorbire fu e faiz e amendez ;
N’i ad mis un sul mot qui ne seit veritez.
Li vers est d’une rime en cinc clauses cuplez.
6165 Mis languages est bons, car en France fui nez.

1234
L’an secund que li sainz fu en s’iglise ocis,
Comenchai cest romanz, e mult m’en entremis.
Des privez saint Thomas la verité apris :
Mainte feiz en ostai ço que jo ainz escris,
6170 Pur oster la mençonge. Al quart an fin i mis.

1235
E ço sacent tuit cil qui ceste vie orrunt
Que pure verité par tut oïr purrunt.
E ço sacent tuit cil qui del saint traitié unt,
U romanz u latin, e cest chemin ne vunt :
6175 U el dient que jo, contre verité sunt.

1236
Or prium Jesu Crist le fiz sainte Marie,
Pur amur saint Thomas, nus doinst la sue aïe,
Que rien ne nus suffraigne a la corporal vie,
E si nus esneium de seculer folie
6180 Qu’al muriant aium la sue conpaignie.

Amen.
Ici fine la Vie saint Thomas le Martyr.

Translation

1219
... . I have heard a vision that Master Firmin had. 6095

1220
Before St.Thomas was murdered in the cathedral, he [ Master Firmin] watched a great procession pass by the clocktower. He saw that St. Thomas was mounted on a horse in the left file, and there was a cleric further away from him whom he was not able to recognize. The King was on the other side mounted on a large destrier. 6100

1221 There was a cross with a golden crown hanging from it, which was being carried up on high before all who were in the procession. A voice was heard from above, proclaiming that the one who put gems and glistening gold upon the cross would forever have a golden crown in heaven. 6105

1222
The voice was heard well [by all]. St. Thomas paid heed to it and he tried by every means possible to reach the cross, for he eagerly desired the crown of Heaven. He was mounted on a large horse; and riding forward he placed before it a great quantity of gems and pure gold. 6110

1223
For a long time after this the King thought about it. If he did not go up to the cross, great would be his dishonour. He was mounted on a large horse, and to the cross he rode, placing before it a great quantity of gems and proof gold, but not as much as had been put there by the good priest. 6115

1224
Then the cleric came forward and wondered how he might also reach the cross. Riding his horse up to it, he placed upon the cross a great number of precious stones and glistening gold. Well did he succeed in this but he did not put there as much in offerings as the other two who had come before him.  6120

1225
The procession continuesalong its path, but the world is on the wane. Most men proceed on foot, because they are few those who aspire to be elsewhere. May St. Thomas, the martyr, bring us true deliverance! But let me tell you the truth, the day will yet come when the king abandons worldly honors for those of God. 6125

1226
As no one knows what he had embraced within his heart, but the inconstancy, the troubles affecting his kingdom [throne], which his own children, who have little sense, have forced upon him, and those foretellings of Merlin which have long troubled him, which the fools [those deprived of reason] who have tried to interpret them have done little to enlighten us. 6130

1227
In fact this moronic plan was conceived on the way towards Britain [Brittany?] by those who wanted to rein him [the King] in and this well nearly brought him to his feet. Now look at how the [female] eagle has laid her gold there, more than three times [and] three she made her nest there; and with the third nest, in England, look how this brought gladness to her heart. 6135

[The female eagle is clearly Eleanor of Aquitaine, and her three sons her three golden eggs.]

1228
From this and others, if it so pleases God, so it will be happy. But now, however, the king would be wrong to fear her: she will never make her nest in another place for she has shed her feathers and will never be covered again. But let the king watch guard over his land, for he is the Grandmaster in it. 6140

1229
Indeed the king well knows, and truly I say to him if his sons behave like brave loyal men, both bold and valiant, if they hold together, they will be even more powerful. The English, the Poitevins, and the Normans will much fear them, and such as those who might laugh at them will be in tears. 6145

1230
As long as there is love between them both, the son and the father and the two love the brothers and the mother; as long as the children hold togethe like brothers, the king above all others may rule as king and emperor: but whosoever stirs up the sauce will drink the waters of much bitterness. 6150

1231
I pray to God and the Martyr, whom I have served for many a day, that He brings peace to the kingdom, and in the good name of love supports both the father and the son, and the brothers and the wife, and gives to them joy and [long] life without need to change the sovereign. And may God give them courage to do me the honour [and make me proud]. (6155)

1232
Guernes de Pont[-Sainte-Maxence], the cleric, here ends his sermon on the martyrdom and passion of Saint Thomas. Many times has he read it by the tomb of our hero. In it is not one word which is not the truth. For any sins he has committed he begs forgiveness with true piety from God. 6160

1233
Never will you be able to find or compose so good an account. It has been both produced and corrected at Canterbury. In it there is not one single word which is not true. The verses are a rhyme of five line couplets. My language is good because I was born in France. 6165


1234
During the second year after the saint had been killed in his church I began this narrative [Life of Becket], and [have since] put a great deal of effort into it. From St Thomas' own private circle [of companions] I learned the truth: many times I have erased what I had previously written, in order to remove the untruths. In the fourth year I finished it. 6170

1235
And let all those who listen to this Life [of Becket] know that they are listening to nothing but the pure truth. And let them also know that all those who have composed [a Life of] the Saint in either the Romance or Latin languages and who did not follow  the same path as me, know that where they tell his story differently from me, they are in error. 6175

1236
Now let us pray to Jesus Christ, son of St Mary [the Virgin], that for the love of St. Thomas that He will gives us His help, so that we will suffer nothing during our corporeal life, and when we are cleansed of worldly folly, as we die, we may have His companionship 6180
Amen

Here Ends the Life of St. Thomas the Martyr

References

Guernes (de Pont-Sainte-Maxence); Emmanuel Walberg (1936). Les Classiques français du Moyen Age. Librarie Honoré Champion. pp. 187–.

St. Thomas of Canterbury, his death and miracles, Abbott, Edwin Abbott  Volume II pp 5-6  Visions - §592

La vie de saint Thomas le martyr, publ. par C. Hippeau. pp215-7